XX sex reversal in a llama.

C. E. Wilker, V. N. Meyers-Wallen, D. H. Schlafer, N. L. Dykes, A. Kovacs, B. A. Ball

Research output: Article

29 Citations (Scopus)


A 5-month-old llama was examined for evaluation of sexually ambiguous external genitalia. To determine the phenotypic, chromosomal, and gonadal sex of the llama, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography, contrast cystography, karyotype evaluation, laparoscopy, and necropsy were performed. A karyotype of 74,XX and finding of components of the müllerian duct system were suggestive of a female phenotype and chromosomal sex. On histologic evaluation, however, components of the wolffian duct system also were found, and the gonads were composed entirely of testicular tissue. The diagnosis was XX sex reversal, with a XX male phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-115
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 1994


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Wilker, C. E., Meyers-Wallen, V. N., Schlafer, D. H., Dykes, N. L., Kovacs, A., & Ball, B. A. (1994). XX sex reversal in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204(1), 112-115.