Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin D status in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and to determine which clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters and endothelial cell markers are associated with low vitamin D levels. Methods: 125 female MCTD patients and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The clinical symptoms, autoantibodies (anti-U1-RNP, anti-cardiolipin - anti-CL and anti-endothelial cell antibody - AECA), serum cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, IL-17 and IL-10), soluble endothelial cell markers (endothelin, thrombomodulin - TM, and von Willebrand factor antigen - vWFAg) and serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B) were investigated for an association with vitamin D levels by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results: The mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in MCTD patients, as compared with the control group (26.16 ± 13.50. ng/ml vs. 34.92 ± 9.64. ng/ml; p < 0.001). In laboratory parameters, vitamin D levels were inversely associated with serum IL-6 (p < 0.001), IL-23 (p = 0.011), IL-10 (p = 0.033) cytokine levels, TM (p = 0.001) and endothelin (p = 0.033) levels. Low vitamin D levels were also significantly associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (p < 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.010), total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and ApoA1 (p = 0.004) levels. Among the clinical symptoms, the cardiovascular involvement showed an inverse correlation with vitamin D status in MCTD (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is high in patients with MCTD. We assume that vitamin D insufficiency along with inflammatory parameters and lipid abnormalities may provoke cardiovascular events.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy