Altered levels of cellular raf proteins (products of the raf protooncogenes) have been shown in the neurons of the dentate fascia of rats in response to high-frequency stimulation, with light microscopic immunohistochemistry by using polyclonal antibodies. No raf-1-like staining was seen in unstimulated tissue, while the pan-raf antibodies revealed immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of neurons in the Ammon's horn and dentate fascia of rats and guinea pigs. The induction of long-term potentiation in the dentate fascia of freely-moving rats triggered the appearance of raf-1-like staining and increased the number of granule cells with pan-raf-like immunoreactivity. Since these proteins are serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, their appearance in long-term potentiation may indicate the activation of important cell membrane - nucleus transduction pathways.
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