The authors present in this review the toxic effects of sterigmatocystin mycotoxin in farm animals. Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a secondary metabolite of different moulds, which is structurally closely related to aflatoxins (AF) as an intermediate of the AF biosynthetic pathway. The most common source of sterigmatocystin is A. nidulans and A. versicolor as these moulds are apparently unable to bio-transform STC into aflatoxin B1 and G1 thus, these can contain high amounts of STC. STC occurs mainly in grains and grain-based products due to fungal infestation at the pre- or post-harvest stage. It has been reported in mouldy grain, green coffee beans, spices, nuts and beer, and also cheese. Currently there are no specific regulations or recommended maximum limits for STC in food and in feed. It is classified as a 2B carcinogen (possibly carcinogenic to human) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Liver and kidneys are the main target organs of acute toxicity. In liver hepatocellular necrosis and haemorrhages were described. Hyaline degeneration, tubular necrosis and haemorrhages were observed in the kidneys. Results from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that STC may have immunomodulatory effects and it is also mutagenic in mammalian cells. STC induces chromosomal damage both in vitro and in vivo in experimental animals, therefore induces cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell cycle and mitosis, as well as an increased in vivo formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. STC forms N7-guanyl DNA adducts which are possibly responsible for its mutagenic effects. The toxicity of STC in livestock and fish remains largely unknown, however, toxicity of STC has been demonstrated in several fish species. In sheep, no signs of toxicity were observed in a feeding trial while for other ruminants only limited data are available.
|Translated title of the contribution||Toxic effects of sterigmato-cystin mycotoxin in animals: Literature review|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - júl. 1 2017|
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