Objective: To determine whether a testicular self-examination-based early-detection program may help in the early diagnosis of testicular cancer. Methods: Advertisements were placed in the media describing the early signs of testicular cancer, the risk factors, the correct method of self-examination and the importance of early detection. Between April 1995 and April 1998, 5,056 men underwent physical and ultrasound examination of the testicles, and in case of suspicious findings tumor markers were checked. Results: Testicular tumors were found in 1.28% of the men with symptoms. No tumors were found in men without symptoms or in men with pain, sensitivity to palpation, or complaints unrelated to the testicle. Of those with a palpable lump or swollen testicle, 4.5 and 3.9% were found to have a tumor. In total, 28 testicular cancers (15 seminomas and 13 nonseminomas) in 26 volunteers and 4 benign tumors were detected. The occurrence of cancer was most frequent in the age group of 15-40 years (1.6%). Conclusion: The rate of cancer detection and the detected seminoma rate in the program are not sufficient to justify a widespread early detection program for testicular cancer (examination of men who reveal testicular abnormalities by self-examination) despite the increased tumor incidence. Early diagnosis should be based on an educational program for the population at risk, the training of staff engaged in the health care of the young, and the use of early ultrasound examination in men with palpable lumps and swollen testicles, especially in young men.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research