Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) take part in the colonic mucosal regeneration. They are multipotent cells, which can be identified with both negative (i.e. CD13, CD 14, CD45, c-Kit, major histocompatibility complex /MHC class I and II) and positive (i.e. CD54 (ICAM1), CD133, CD146 (MCAM), CD166, Flk-1, Sca-1, Thy-1, stage-specific antigen I /SSEA-I and Musashi-1, HLA class I) markers. These cells can repopulate the gastrointestinal mucosa as they may differentiate into stromal- (i.e. myofi-broblast) or epithelial-like (Paneth-, epithel-, goblet or enteroendocrin) cells without proliferation. During the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) stem cells enter the epithelial layer and take up epithelial cell-like properties. Rarely BM-MSCs may retain their stem cell characteristics and are capable of producing progeny. The isolated lymphoid aggregates may serve as a platform from where BM-MSCs migrate to the nearby crypts as mediated by several chemoattractant proteins, which are expressed in injured tissue. The number of BM-MSCs is influenced by the degree of inflammation. In this review we summarize the current information about the role of BM-MSCs in the repair progress of injured colonic epithelium and their potential clinical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cancer Research