Solid-organ transplantation is the optimal long-term treatment for most patients with end-stage organ failure. After solid-organ transplantation, short-term graft survival significantly improved (1). However, due to chronic allograft nephropathy and death with functioning graft, long-term survival has not prolonged remarkably (2). Posttransplant immunosuppressive medications consist of one of the calcineurin inhibitors in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (Aza) and steroids. All of them have different adverse effects, among which posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events and infections causing the death of many transplant patients and it may directly contribute to graft failure (3). According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (4), diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined by symptoms of diabetes (polyuria and polydipsia and weight loss) plus casual plasma glucose concentration ≥11.1 mmol/L or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2-h plasma glucose level ≥11.1 mmol/L following oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This metabolic disorder occurring as a complication of organ transplantation has been recognized for many years. PTDM, which is a combination of decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance, develops in 4.9/15.9% of liver transplant patients, in 4.7/11.5% of kidney recipients, and in 15/17.5% of heart and lung transplants [cyclosporine A (CyA)/tacrolimus (Tac)-based regimen, respectively] (5). Risk factors of PTDM can be divided into non-modifiable and modifiable ones (6), among which the most prominent is the immunosuppressive therapy being responsible for 74% of PTDM development (7). Emphasizing the importance of the PTDM, numerous studies have determined the long-term outcome. On the basis of these studies, graft and patient survival is tendentiously (8) or significantly (9, 10) decreased for those developing PTDM.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism