Background: The triglycerides (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C) is a well-known predictor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with great heritability background. The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene affect TG/HDL-C ratio. This study aims to explore the association between haplotypes (H) in CETP (based on 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) and LIPC (based on 6 SNPs) genes and the TG/HDL-C ratio and its components, among Roma and Hungarian general populations. Methods: The prevalence of haplotypes and their effect on HDL-C, TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were calculated in both populations and compared. Results: Ten haplotypes in CETP and 6 in LIPC gene were identified. Three haplotypes in CETP and 3 in LIPC have significant effect on HDL-C level, whereas two in CETP and 3 in LIPC on TG level. The H6 in CETP (β = 0.52, p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, p = 0.009) and H5 in LIPC (β = 0.56, p < 0.001; OR = 1.51, p = 0.002) have a significant increasing effect on TG/HDL-C ratio and have shown higher prevalence among the Roma, as compared to Hungarian general population. The H2 in the CETP gene has a decreasing effect on the TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 0.58, p = 0.019) and is significantly less frequent among the Roma. Conclusions: Accumulation of harmful haplotypes in CETP and LIPC genes might have a role in the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio in the Roma population, which contributes to a higher risk in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
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