Surgical anatomy for endoscopic subfascial division of perforating veins

G. Mozes, P. Gloviczki, S. S. Menawat, D. R. Fisher, S. W. Carmichael, A. Kadar

Research output: Article

64 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study was undertaken to define the surgical anatomy of the medial perforating veins (PVs) of the leg and to provide information on how to gain access to all medial PVs from the superficial posterior compartment during a subfascial endoscopic procedure. Methods: The venous anatomy of 40 limbs (from 23 cadavers) were studied. Medial PVs located between the ankle and the tibial tuberosity were dissected. None of the subjects had pathologic evidence of venous disease. Each PV's type (direct or indirect), size (<1 mm, 1 to 2 mm, >2 mm), location (distances from ankle [D1], and tibia [D2]), and accessibility from the superficial posterior compartment were recorded. Results: Five hundred fifty-two PVs were identified (mean, 13.8; range, 7 to 22). Two hundred eighty-seven PVs (52%) directly connected the superficial with the deep systems, 228 (41%) were indirect muscle perforators, and 37 PVs (7%) were undetermined. One hundred thirty-seven PVs (25%) were >2 mm. Sixty- three percent of PVs were accessible from the superficial posterior compartment. In the distal half of the leg, two groups of direct PVs could be identified (Cockett II: D1, 7 to 9 cm; Cockett III: D1, 10 to 12 cm). In the proximal half of the leg, paratibial direct PVs (D2 ≤ 1 cm) were found clustered in three groups (D1, 18 to 22 cm; D1, 23 to 27 cm; D1, 28 to 32 cm). Conclusions: Our study confirmed the presence of the Cockett II and III PVs and three groups of proximal paratibial PVs, including the '24-cm' perforators. Two thirds of the medial direct PVs are accessible for endoscopic division from the superficial posterior compartment. To divide paratibial PVs, however, incision of the paratibial deep fascia is frequently required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)800-808
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 1996


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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