Structure investigations of wear reducing non-metallic layers on TiN-coated HSS turning tools

E. Harju, A. S. Korhonen, M. Adamik, P. Barna

Research output: Article

Abstract

There has been considerable interest in improving the machinability of steels. The favourable effects of Ca to machinability were already found by Konig and Opitz et al. in the late 1950s. The modified, Ca-treated, quenched and tempered steels are now commercially available, but there seem to be considerable differences in performances between different producers. In our earlier study, both the modified steels performed better than the untreated steels, but the differences in machinabilities between the treated steels were considerable. The formation of the non-metallic protective layer was examined by SIMS and the inclusions in steels by EDS in order to find reasons for different machinabilities. In this study, the structural characteristics of the formed protective layers were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-TEM images proved the existence of the non-metallic layer on the surface of the tool after turning of both steels. The protective layers showed an uneven thickness and inhomogeneity in morphology and composition. The XPS and EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of the same elements, Ca, Mn, S and Al, on the surface of the layer, though the marks of these elements were more pronounced after turning of the better performing steel. The reason for the notable differences in machinabilities may therefore lie in the adhesiveness and uniformity of the layer on the surface of the tool.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-504
Number of pages7
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Volume116-119
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - szept. 1999

Fingerprint

Steel
Machinability
Wear of materials
steels
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
photoelectron spectroscopy
spectroscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
transmission electron microscopy
x rays
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
secondary ion mass spectrometry
energy
Atomic force microscopy
inhomogeneity
atomic force microscopy
inclusions
Chemical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces

Cite this

@article{42c14402e9df4cec9c41fa081dafaa1f,
title = "Structure investigations of wear reducing non-metallic layers on TiN-coated HSS turning tools",
abstract = "There has been considerable interest in improving the machinability of steels. The favourable effects of Ca to machinability were already found by Konig and Opitz et al. in the late 1950s. The modified, Ca-treated, quenched and tempered steels are now commercially available, but there seem to be considerable differences in performances between different producers. In our earlier study, both the modified steels performed better than the untreated steels, but the differences in machinabilities between the treated steels were considerable. The formation of the non-metallic protective layer was examined by SIMS and the inclusions in steels by EDS in order to find reasons for different machinabilities. In this study, the structural characteristics of the formed protective layers were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-TEM images proved the existence of the non-metallic layer on the surface of the tool after turning of both steels. The protective layers showed an uneven thickness and inhomogeneity in morphology and composition. The XPS and EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of the same elements, Ca, Mn, S and Al, on the surface of the layer, though the marks of these elements were more pronounced after turning of the better performing steel. The reason for the notable differences in machinabilities may therefore lie in the adhesiveness and uniformity of the layer on the surface of the tool.",
keywords = "Ca treatment, Cutting, Machinability, TiN coating",
author = "E. Harju and Korhonen, {A. S.} and M. Adamik and P. Barna",
year = "1999",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00100-0",
language = "English",
volume = "116-119",
pages = "498--504",
journal = "Surface and Coatings Technology",
issn = "0257-8972",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structure investigations of wear reducing non-metallic layers on TiN-coated HSS turning tools

AU - Harju, E.

AU - Korhonen, A. S.

AU - Adamik, M.

AU - Barna, P.

PY - 1999/9

Y1 - 1999/9

N2 - There has been considerable interest in improving the machinability of steels. The favourable effects of Ca to machinability were already found by Konig and Opitz et al. in the late 1950s. The modified, Ca-treated, quenched and tempered steels are now commercially available, but there seem to be considerable differences in performances between different producers. In our earlier study, both the modified steels performed better than the untreated steels, but the differences in machinabilities between the treated steels were considerable. The formation of the non-metallic protective layer was examined by SIMS and the inclusions in steels by EDS in order to find reasons for different machinabilities. In this study, the structural characteristics of the formed protective layers were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-TEM images proved the existence of the non-metallic layer on the surface of the tool after turning of both steels. The protective layers showed an uneven thickness and inhomogeneity in morphology and composition. The XPS and EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of the same elements, Ca, Mn, S and Al, on the surface of the layer, though the marks of these elements were more pronounced after turning of the better performing steel. The reason for the notable differences in machinabilities may therefore lie in the adhesiveness and uniformity of the layer on the surface of the tool.

AB - There has been considerable interest in improving the machinability of steels. The favourable effects of Ca to machinability were already found by Konig and Opitz et al. in the late 1950s. The modified, Ca-treated, quenched and tempered steels are now commercially available, but there seem to be considerable differences in performances between different producers. In our earlier study, both the modified steels performed better than the untreated steels, but the differences in machinabilities between the treated steels were considerable. The formation of the non-metallic protective layer was examined by SIMS and the inclusions in steels by EDS in order to find reasons for different machinabilities. In this study, the structural characteristics of the formed protective layers were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-TEM images proved the existence of the non-metallic layer on the surface of the tool after turning of both steels. The protective layers showed an uneven thickness and inhomogeneity in morphology and composition. The XPS and EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of the same elements, Ca, Mn, S and Al, on the surface of the layer, though the marks of these elements were more pronounced after turning of the better performing steel. The reason for the notable differences in machinabilities may therefore lie in the adhesiveness and uniformity of the layer on the surface of the tool.

KW - Ca treatment

KW - Cutting

KW - Machinability

KW - TiN coating

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033387924&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033387924&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00100-0

DO - 10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00100-0

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0033387924

VL - 116-119

SP - 498

EP - 504

JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

SN - 0257-8972

ER -