This paper discusses the formation of nanosized hexagonal tungsten oxide (h-WO3) during the annealing of hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze (HATB), (NH4) 0.33-x WO3-y. This process was investigated by TG/ DTA-MS, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, and 1H-MAS NMR analyses. Through adjusting the temperature and atmosphere of annealing HATB, the composition (W oxidation state, residual NH4+ and NH3 content) of h-WO3 could be controlled. The effect of composition on the conductivity and gas sensitivity of h-WO3 was studied. New structural information was obtained about both HATB and h-WO3. It was found that NH4+ and NH3 could be situated at three different positions in HATB. Residual NH4+ and NH3 in the hexagonal channels seemed to be vital for stabilizing h-WO3: when they were completely released, the hexagonal framework collapsed. We propose that the structure of h-WO3 cannot be maintained without some stabilizing ions or molecules in the hexagonal channels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4116-4125
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - jún. 24 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

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