Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for blastic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Treatment options including donor lymphocyte infusion, second transplantation, interferon- and re-induction chemotherapy are often unsuccessful. We report a patient with blastic phase chronic myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The post-transplant leukemia was characterized with B-lymphoid markers and multiple genetic abnormalities including double Ph-chromosomes. The disease was treated with three courses of salvage chemotherapy combined with donor lymphocyte infusion and bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The leukemia proved to be non-responsive both to immune therapy and STI 571. The presented case demonstrates the need for combination approaches in post-transplant relapsed leukemia and discusses the possible contributing mechanisms of STI-571 resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cancer Research