Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy

M. Lakatos, M. Baranyi, L. Erőss, S. Nardai, T. L. Török, B. Sperlágh, E. Vízi

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Abstract

The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in response to ischemia, even in the absence of Ca2+. These findings further indicate that the NCX plays an important role in maintaining a high [Na+]i, a condition that may lead to the reversal of monoamine transporter functions; this effect consequently leads to the excessive cytoplasmic tonic release of monoamines and the reversal of the NCX. Using HPLC combined with scintillation spectrometry, hypothermia, which enhances the stimulation-evoked release of DA, was found to inhibit the efflux of toxic DA metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In slices prepared from human cortical brain tissue removed during elective neurosurgery, the uptake and release values for [3H]NA did not differ from those measured at 37 °C in slices that were previously maintained under hypoxic conditions at 8 °C for 20 h. This result indicates that hypothermia preserves the functions of the transport and release mechanisms, even under hypoxic conditions. Oxidative stress (H2O2), a mediator of ischemic brain injury enhanced the striatal resting release of [3H]DA and its toxic metabolites (DOPAL, quinone). The study supports our earlier findings that during ischemia transmitters are released from the cytoplasm. In addition, the major findings of this study that hypothermia of brain slice preparations prevents the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o)-independent non-vesicular transmitter release induced by ischemic insults, inhibiting Na+/Cl-dependent membrane transport of monoamines and their toxic metabolites into the extracellular space, where they can exert toxic effects.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurochemical Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 2019

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Hypothermia
Poisons
Extracellular Space
Catecholamines
Ischemia
Metabolites
Stroke
Brain
Corpus Striatum
Transmitters
Neurosurgery
Oxidative stress
Scintillation
Therapeutics
Spectrometry
Rats
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Brain Injuries
Tissue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

@article{faf8635ff5874b2cb51de63747eebc25,
title = "Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy",
abstract = "The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in response to ischemia, even in the absence of Ca2+. These findings further indicate that the NCX plays an important role in maintaining a high [Na+]i, a condition that may lead to the reversal of monoamine transporter functions; this effect consequently leads to the excessive cytoplasmic tonic release of monoamines and the reversal of the NCX. Using HPLC combined with scintillation spectrometry, hypothermia, which enhances the stimulation-evoked release of DA, was found to inhibit the efflux of toxic DA metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In slices prepared from human cortical brain tissue removed during elective neurosurgery, the uptake and release values for [3H]NA did not differ from those measured at 37 °C in slices that were previously maintained under hypoxic conditions at 8 °C for 20 h. This result indicates that hypothermia preserves the functions of the transport and release mechanisms, even under hypoxic conditions. Oxidative stress (H2O2), a mediator of ischemic brain injury enhanced the striatal resting release of [3H]DA and its toxic metabolites (DOPAL, quinone). The study supports our earlier findings that during ischemia transmitters are released from the cytoplasm. In addition, the major findings of this study that hypothermia of brain slice preparations prevents the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o)-independent non-vesicular transmitter release induced by ischemic insults, inhibiting Na+/Cl−-dependent membrane transport of monoamines and their toxic metabolites into the extracellular space, where they can exert toxic effects.",
keywords = "DOPAL, Dopamine, Dopamine release, Extracellular space, Hypothermia, Ischemia, Monoamine transporter, Na/Ca exchanger, Non-vesicular, Toxic",
author = "M. Lakatos and M. Baranyi and L. Erőss and S. Nardai and T{\"o}r{\"o}k, {T. L.} and B. Sperl{\'a}gh and E. V{\'i}zi",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s11064-019-02842-0",
language = "English",
journal = "Neurochemical Research",
issn = "0364-3190",
publisher = "Springer New York",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space

T2 - Implications for Stroke Therapy

AU - Lakatos, M.

AU - Baranyi, M.

AU - Erőss, L.

AU - Nardai, S.

AU - Török, T. L.

AU - Sperlágh, B.

AU - Vízi, E.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in response to ischemia, even in the absence of Ca2+. These findings further indicate that the NCX plays an important role in maintaining a high [Na+]i, a condition that may lead to the reversal of monoamine transporter functions; this effect consequently leads to the excessive cytoplasmic tonic release of monoamines and the reversal of the NCX. Using HPLC combined with scintillation spectrometry, hypothermia, which enhances the stimulation-evoked release of DA, was found to inhibit the efflux of toxic DA metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In slices prepared from human cortical brain tissue removed during elective neurosurgery, the uptake and release values for [3H]NA did not differ from those measured at 37 °C in slices that were previously maintained under hypoxic conditions at 8 °C for 20 h. This result indicates that hypothermia preserves the functions of the transport and release mechanisms, even under hypoxic conditions. Oxidative stress (H2O2), a mediator of ischemic brain injury enhanced the striatal resting release of [3H]DA and its toxic metabolites (DOPAL, quinone). The study supports our earlier findings that during ischemia transmitters are released from the cytoplasm. In addition, the major findings of this study that hypothermia of brain slice preparations prevents the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o)-independent non-vesicular transmitter release induced by ischemic insults, inhibiting Na+/Cl−-dependent membrane transport of monoamines and their toxic metabolites into the extracellular space, where they can exert toxic effects.

AB - The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in response to ischemia, even in the absence of Ca2+. These findings further indicate that the NCX plays an important role in maintaining a high [Na+]i, a condition that may lead to the reversal of monoamine transporter functions; this effect consequently leads to the excessive cytoplasmic tonic release of monoamines and the reversal of the NCX. Using HPLC combined with scintillation spectrometry, hypothermia, which enhances the stimulation-evoked release of DA, was found to inhibit the efflux of toxic DA metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In slices prepared from human cortical brain tissue removed during elective neurosurgery, the uptake and release values for [3H]NA did not differ from those measured at 37 °C in slices that were previously maintained under hypoxic conditions at 8 °C for 20 h. This result indicates that hypothermia preserves the functions of the transport and release mechanisms, even under hypoxic conditions. Oxidative stress (H2O2), a mediator of ischemic brain injury enhanced the striatal resting release of [3H]DA and its toxic metabolites (DOPAL, quinone). The study supports our earlier findings that during ischemia transmitters are released from the cytoplasm. In addition, the major findings of this study that hypothermia of brain slice preparations prevents the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o)-independent non-vesicular transmitter release induced by ischemic insults, inhibiting Na+/Cl−-dependent membrane transport of monoamines and their toxic metabolites into the extracellular space, where they can exert toxic effects.

KW - DOPAL

KW - Dopamine

KW - Dopamine release

KW - Extracellular space

KW - Hypothermia

KW - Ischemia

KW - Monoamine transporter

KW - Na/Ca exchanger

KW - Non-vesicular

KW - Toxic

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U2 - 10.1007/s11064-019-02842-0

DO - 10.1007/s11064-019-02842-0

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85069701859

JO - Neurochemical Research

JF - Neurochemical Research

SN - 0364-3190

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