Inflammation in the intestine is a well-known risk factor for neoplastic changes in the mucosa. In fact, it has been shown that long-standing ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have a significantly increased risk for developing colorectal cancer, although the estimates vary widely between studies. Conventional colonoscopy is effective in detecting polypoid changes in the mucosa. However, it is now generally accepted that neoplastic changes in colitis are frequently flat and depressed, which are easily missed by use of routine colonoscopy. The introduction of chromoendoscopy, especially in combination with magnifying endoscopy, has greatly advanced our means to detect and differentiate neoplastic lesions in the colorectum. Accumulating evidence-based data indicate that implementation of chromoendoscopy into colon cancer surveillance protocols for patients with inflammatory bowel disease is effective. However, the introduction of chromoendoscopy into surveillance programs requires meticulous training and further studies to compare the value of chromoendoscopy to newer endoscopic devices and techniques, such as narrow band imaging.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy