Rodent models of complement activation-related pseudoallergy: Inducers, symptoms, inhibitors and reaction mechanisms

Research output: Article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to intravenous administration of nanoparticle-containing medicines (nanomedicines). This review focuses on CARPA in rodent models: rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. Information on all aspects of hypersensitivity reactions caused by known complement activators (zymosan, cobra venom factor) and different nanomedicines (liposomes, other drug carrier nanocarriers) in these species has been compiled and analyzed, trying to highlight the similarities and differences. What is most common in all species' reactions to i.v. complement activators, liposomes and other nanoparticles is a dose-dependent hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary disturbance manifested in acute, reversible rise or fall of blood pressure and respiratory distress that can lead to shock. Other symptoms include heart rate changes, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration due to fluid extravasation (rise of hematocrit) and rise of plasma thromboxane B2. The results of a recent rat study are detailed, which show that rats are 2-3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to liposome-induced CARPA than pigs or hypersensitive humans. It is concluded that CARPA can be studied in rodent models, but they do not necessarily mimic the human reactions in terms of symptom spectrum and sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-25
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 2015

Fingerprint

rodents
Complement Activation
complement
inhibitors
Liposomes
Rodentia
Chemical activation
activation
Nanoparticles
Rats
rats
Hypersensitivity
medicine
Thromboxane B2
nanoparticles
Drug Carriers
Zymosan
human reactions
Leukocytosis
Blood pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

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abstract = "Complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to intravenous administration of nanoparticle-containing medicines (nanomedicines). This review focuses on CARPA in rodent models: rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. Information on all aspects of hypersensitivity reactions caused by known complement activators (zymosan, cobra venom factor) and different nanomedicines (liposomes, other drug carrier nanocarriers) in these species has been compiled and analyzed, trying to highlight the similarities and differences. What is most common in all species' reactions to i.v. complement activators, liposomes and other nanoparticles is a dose-dependent hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary disturbance manifested in acute, reversible rise or fall of blood pressure and respiratory distress that can lead to shock. Other symptoms include heart rate changes, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration due to fluid extravasation (rise of hematocrit) and rise of plasma thromboxane B2. The results of a recent rat study are detailed, which show that rats are 2-3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to liposome-induced CARPA than pigs or hypersensitive humans. It is concluded that CARPA can be studied in rodent models, but they do not necessarily mimic the human reactions in terms of symptom spectrum and sensitivity.",
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