Unique members of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family have been found to regulate intracellular signaling pathways initiated by other families of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic-acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the most powerful type I interferon (IFN) producing cells, preferentially employ endosomal TLRs to elicit antiviral IFN responses. By contrast, conventional DCs (cDCs) predominantly use cytosolic RLRs, which are constitutively expressed in them, to sense foreign nucleic acids. Previously we have reported that, though RIG-I is absent from resting pDCs, it is inducible upon TLR stimulation. In the recent study we investigated the regulatory ability of NLRs, namely NLRC5 and NLRX1 directly associated with the RLR-mediated signaling pathway in DC subtypes showing different RLR expression, particularly in pDCs, and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). Here we demonstrate that similarly to RLRs, NLRC5 is also inducible upon TLR9 stimulation, whereas NLRX1 is constitutively expressed in pDCs. Inhibition of NLRC5 and NLRX1 expression in pDCs augmented the RLR-stimulated expression of type I IFNs but did not affect the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8. Further we show that immature moDCs constantly express RLRs, NLRX1 and NLRC5 that are gradually upregulated during their differentiation. Similarly to pDCs, NLRX1 suppression increased the RLR-induced production of type I IFNs in moDCs. Interestingly, RLR stimulation of NLRX1-silenced moDCs leads to a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and IκBα degradation, suggesting increased NF-κB activity. On the contrary, NLRC5 does not seem to have any effect on the RLR-mediated cytokine responses in moDCs. In summary, our results indicate that NLRX1 negatively regulates the RLR-mediated type I IFN production both in pDCs and moDCs. Further we show that NLRX1 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in moDCs but not in pDCs following RLR stimulation. Interestingly, NLRC5 suppresses the RLR-induced type I IFN secretion in pDCs but does not appear to have any regulatory function on the RLR pathway in moDCs. Collectively, our work demonstrates that RLR-mediated innate immune responses are primarily regulated by NLRX1 and partly controlled by NLRC5 in human DCs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy