Wound healing is a complex multiphase process which can be hampered by many factors including impaired local circulation, hypoxia, infection, malnutrition, immunosuppression, and metabolic dysregulation in diabetes. Redox dysregulation is a common feature of many skin diseases demonstrated by virtually all cell types in the skin with overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The objective of this study was to characterize the redox environment in wound fluids and sera from patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers (n = 19) and acute wounds (bulla fluids from second degree burns; n = 11) with serum data also compared to those from healthy volunteers (n = 7). Significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α, interleukine-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and lactate dehydrogenase (measure of cell damage) were found in fluids from chronic wounds compared to acute ones. The extent of protein carbonylation (measure of protein oxidation), lipid peroxidation, and tyrosine nitration (indicator of peroxynitrite production) was similar in acute and chronic wound fluids, while radical scavenging activity and glutathione (GSH) levels were elevated in chronic wound fluids compared to acute wounds. Sera were also assessed for the same set of parameters with no significant differences detected. Nitrotyrosine (the footprint of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite) and poly(ADP-ribose) (the product of the DNA damage sensor enzyme PARP-1) could be detected in wound biopsies. Our data identify multiple signs of redox stress in chronic wounds with notable differences. In chronic wounds, elevations in antioxidant levels/activities may indicate compensatory mechanisms against inflammation. The presence of nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) in tissues from venous leg ulcers indicate peroxynitrite production and PARP activation in chronic wounds.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology