Protein cross-linking by chlorinated polyamines and transglutamylation stabilizes neutrophil extracellular traps

Krisztián Csomós, Endre Kristóf, Bernadett Jakob, István Csomós, György Kovács, Omri Rotem, Judit Hodrea, Zsuzsa Bagoly, Laszlo Muszbek, Zoltán Balajthy, Éva Csősz, László Fésüs

Research output: Article

6 Citations (Scopus)


Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) ejected from activated dying neutrophils is a highly ordered structure of DNA and selected proteins capable to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. Biochemical determinants of the non-randomly formed stable NETs have not been revealed so far. Studying the formation of human NETs we have observed that polyamines were incorporated into the NET. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase, which is essential for NET formation and can generate reactive chlorinated polyamines through hypochlorous acid, decreased polyamine incorporation. Addition of exogenous primary amines that similarly to polyamines inhibit reactions catalyzed by the protein cross-linker transglutaminases (TGases) has similar effect. Proteomic analysis of the highly reproducible pattern of NET components revealed cross-linking of NET proteins through chlorinated polyamines and ε(γ-glutamyl)lysine as well as bis-γ-glutamyl polyamine bonds catalyzed by the TGases detected in neutrophils. Competitive inhibition of protein cross-linking by monoamines disturbed the cross-linking pattern of NET proteins, which resulted in the loss of the ordered structure of the NET and significantly reduced capacity to trap bacteria. Our findings provide explanation of how NETs are formed in a reproducible and ordered manner to efficiently neutralize microorganisms at the first defense line of the innate immune system.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2332
JournalCell Death and Disease
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - jan. 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research

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