Propagation of inductive and resonance effects of phenyl substituents within 1-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro- and -1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines were studied with the aid of 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts and ab initio calculations. The substituent-induced changes in the chemical shift (SCS) were correlated with a dual substituent parameter equation. The contributions of conjugative (ρR) and nonconjugative effects (ρF) were analyzed, and mapping of the substituent-induced changes is given over the entire isoquinoline moiety for both series. The experimental results can be rationalized with the aid of the resonance polarization concept. This means the consideration of the substituent-sensitive balance of different resonance structures, i.e., electron delocalization, and the effect of the aromatic ring substituents on their relative contributions. With tetrahydroisoquinolines, the delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair (stereoelectronic effect) particularly contributes. Correlation analysis of the Mulliken atomic charges for the dihydroisoquinoline derivatives was also performed. The results support the concept of the substituent-sensitive polarization of the isoquinoline moiety even if the polarization pattern achieved via the NMR approach is not quite the same as that predicted by the computational charges. Previously the concepts of localized π-polarization and extended polarization have been used to explain polar substituent effects within aromatic side-chain derivatives. We consider that the resonance polarization model effectively contributes to the understanding of the polar substituent effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry