Partial inactivation and transient depletion of monocytes/macrophages by liposomal bisphosphonates (LIP-BPs) is widely experimented in various inflammatory disorders including restenosis. Previous studies on activation of cytokines by LIP-BPs are limited to certain cell lines. Moreover, the correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies and complement (C) activation has not been reported. We report here a comprehensive study on the bioactivity of LIP-BPs on various cells' internalization and proliferation, mechanism of cell death, cytokines (in vitro and in vivo) and C activation (in the rat, rabbit and pig). The role of the following parameters has been determined i) drug type (clodronate/alendronate); ii) vesicles size (60-800. nm); iii) charge (neutral/negative/ positive); and iv) cell culture type (various cell lines and primary cultures). It was found that monocyte/macrophage inhibition and cytokine activation depend on the cell type, with a limited correlation to the bioactivity obtained in the rat and rabbit models of restenosis. Negatively charged liposomes (85 ± 20 nm) effectively depleted rabbit's monocytes (67% depletion), with a minor activation of cytokines and no C activation. It is concluded that cell culture studies are insufficient for assessing cytokine activation, and that by controlling LIP-BP properties (size, charge and drug type) optimal bioactivity could be achieved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science