Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is one of the oldest, most widely farmed commercially important freshwater fish in the world. However, many undetermined phylogenetic relationships and origins of common carp lineages remain, which are obstacles to conservation and genetic breeding of this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular tools are helpful to distinguish the origin of species, understand and clarify their evolutionary history, and provide a genetic basis for selective breeding. In this study, we demonstrated a method to extract complete mitochondrial genome sequences from whole-genome resequencing data using the Illumina platform. The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 26 individuals representing nine strains were obtained and subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. We reconstructed the phylogenetic topologies of the nine strains and analyzed the haplotypes. Results from both analyses suggested that the genome sequences belonged to two distinct subspecies from Europe and East Asia. We also estimated the time of divergence of the nine strains, which was up to 100 KYA. The phylogenetic results clarified the breeding history of Songpu mirror carp and suggest that this species may be hybrid of paternal European mirror carp and maternal Xingguo red carp. The results also support a previous hypothesis that koi may have originated from or have close ancestry with Oujiang color carp in China.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aquatic Science