Photometric redshift of X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field-South

W. Zheng, V. J. Mikles, V. Mainieri, G. Hasinger, P. Rosati, C. Wolf, C. Norman, G. Szokoly, R. Gilli, P. Tozzi, J. X. Wang, A. Zirm, R. Giacconi

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94 Citations (Scopus)


Based on the photometry of 10 near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared bands of the Chandra Deep Field-South, we estimate the photometric redshifts for 342 X-ray sources, which constitute ∼99% of all the detected X-ray sources in the field. The models of spectral energy distribution are based on galaxies and a combination of power-law continuum and emission lines. Color information is useful for source classifications: type I active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show nonthermal spectral features that are distinct from galaxies and type II AGNs. The hardness ratio in X-ray and the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio are also useful discriminators. Using rudimentary color separation techniques, we are able to further refine our photometric redshift estimations. Among these sources, 173 have reliable spectroscopic redshifts, which we use to verify the accuracy of photometric redshifts and to modify the model inputs. The average relative dispersion in redshift distribution is ∼8%, among the most accurate for photometric surveys. The high reliability of our results is attributable to the high quality and broad coverage of data as well as the applications of several independent methods and a careful evaluation of every source. We apply our redshift estimations to study the effect of redshift on broadband colors and to study the redshift distribution of AGNs. Our results show that both the hardness ratio and U - K color decline with redshift, which may be the result of a K-correction. The number of type II AGNs declines significantly at z > 2 and that of galaxies declines at z > 1. However, the distribution of type I AGNs exhibits less redshift dependence. As well, we observe a significant peak in the redshift distribution at z = 0.6. We demonstrate that our photometric redshift estimation produces a reliable database for the study of X-ray luminosity of galaxies and AGNs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-87
Number of pages15
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - nov. 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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    Zheng, W., Mikles, V. J., Mainieri, V., Hasinger, G., Rosati, P., Wolf, C., Norman, C., Szokoly, G., Gilli, R., Tozzi, P., Wang, J. X., Zirm, A., & Giacconi, R. (2004). Photometric redshift of X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field-South. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 155(1), 73-87.