Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of smoking on outcomes after coronary revascularization, especially in patients with left main CAD (LMCAD) is less well understood. The EXCEL trial randomized 1,905 patients with LMCAD and visually assessed low or intermediate anatomical complexity (SYNTAX score ≤32) to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or CABG. Patients were categorized according to smoking status (current, former, or never), and their outcomes at 5 years were compared by logistic regression with follow-up time included as a log-transformed offset variable. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Among 1893 patients with known smoking status at baseline, 416 (22%) were current smokers and 774 (41%) were former smokers. The crude rates of the primary endpoint were 19.5% for never smokers, 20.5% for former smokers (p = 0.61 vs never smokers), and 23.1% for smokers (p = 0.15 vs never smokers). Compared with never smokers, the adjusted risk of the primary endpoint was higher for current smokers (adjOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.126 to 2.63; p = 0.001), but not for former smokers (adjOR 1.00, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.33, p = 0.10). The relative efficacy of PCI versus CABG for the 5-year primary endpoint was similar irrespective of smoking status (Pinteraction = 0.22). In conclusion, current smokers in the EXCEL trial had a higher adjusted 5-year risk of the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke than never smokers, whereas former smokers were not at increased risk. Active smoking was a risk factor after LMCAD revascularization irrespective of revascularization method.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine