Optimization of the critical parameters of the spherical agglomeration crystallization method by the application of the Quality by Design approach

Orsolya Gyulai, Anita Kovács, Tamás Sovány, Ildikó Csóka, Z. Aigner

Research output: Article

4 Citations (Scopus)


This research work presents the use of the Quality by Design (QbD) concept for optimization of the spherical agglomeration crystallization method in the case of the active agent, ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB HCl). AMB HCl spherical crystals were formulated by the spherical agglomeration method, which was applied as an antisolvent technique. Spherical crystals have good flowing properties, which makes the direct compression tableting method applicable. This means that the amount of additives used can be reduced and smaller tablets can be formed. For the risk assessment, LeanQbD Software was used. According to its results, four independent variables (mixing type and time, dT (temperature difference between solvent and antisolvent), and composition (solvent/antisolvent volume ratio)) and three dependent variables (mean particle size, aspect ratio, and roundness) were selected. Based on these, a 2-3 mixed-level factorial design was constructed, crystallization was accomplished, and the results were evaluated using Statistica for Windows 13 program. Product assay was performed and it was revealed that improvements in the mean particle size (from ~13 to ~200 μm), roundness (from ~2.4 to ~1.5), aspect ratio (from ~1.7 to ~1.4), and flow properties were observed while polymorphic transitions were avoided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number635
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - ápr. 20 2018


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this