Equine leukoencephalomalacia (= ELEM) was first diagnosed in Hungary in a horse stock consisted of 3 horses. A 13 years old castrated, a 6 years old stud and a 2 years old foal diseased by nervous symptoms in September, 1995. The animals - in spite of the treatment applied - died after three to nine days. The disease started with lack of appetite, followed by the disturbance of swallowing and chewing indicating the paralysis of cephalic and pharyngeal muscles. Paralysis of cephalic and cervical muscles spread to the muscles of extremities and trunk. The animals moved with difficulties, tottering and ataxia developed. Signs of "blindness" developed in one animal. At the final stage of the disease, the affected animals lied down and died. The pathological examination of one animal revealed pulmonary oedema. Severe oedema was observed in the white substance of the brain during the histopathological investigation (Figure). Laboratory investigation directed to infectious diseases and intoxication caused by pesticides were negative. The disease was caused by green maize, the feeding of which started two to three weeks before the first clinical signs and it was fed during the whole course of the disease. High pressure liquid chromatographic investigation detected 18.5 mg/kg of feed fumonisin-B1 contamination in the green maize referring to the whole plant. A survey carried out some three years ago on the Eastern part of Hungary detected an approx. 70% fumonisin-B1 contamination in the moulded, as well as damaged maize. Much higher fumonisin-B1 and other fusarium toxin contaminations were detected in maize produced in 1995 than in the harvest of previous years. Fumonisin-B1 contamination was higher than the toxic level (which is 5 mg/kg of feed according to the literature data, 15, 18) in 27% of moulded maize samples produced in Hungary in 1995 (5). In that, the intensive damage caused by the larvae of European corn borer played an important role ensuring favorable conditions for the growing of moulds, among them for Fusarium moniliforme producing fumonisin-B1 toxin. Occurrence of the disease, as well as the observations and investigations made in connection with the present case call the attention that it should be reckoned with the occurrence of fumonisin-toxicoses also in Hungary.
|Translated title of the contribution||Occurrence of the equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) caused by fumonisin-B1 mycotoxin in Hungary|
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - dec. 1 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas