Background KRAS mutation occurs in ∼40% of locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs). The multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib has radiosensitising effects and might improve outcomes for standard preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with KRAS-mutated LARC. Methods Adult patients with KRAS-mutated T3/4 and/or N1/2M0 LARC were included in this phase I/II study. The phase I dose-escalation study of capecitabine plus sorafenib and radiotherapy was followed by a phase II study assessing efficacy and safety. Primary end-points were to: establish the maximum tolerated dose of the regimen in phase I; determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in phase II defined as Dworak regression grade 3 and 4. Results Fifty-four patients were treated at 18 centres in Switzerland and Hungary; 40 patients were included in the single-arm phase II study. Recommended doses from phase I comprised radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 twice daily × 33 plus sorafenib 400 mg/d. Median daily dose intensity in phase II was radiotherapy 100%, capecitabine 98.6%, and sorafenib 100%. The pCR rate (Dworak 3/4) was 60% (95% CI, 43.3–75.1%) by central independent pathologic review. Sphincter preservation was achieved in 89.5%, R0 resection in 94.7%, and downstaging in 81.6%. The most common grade 3 toxicities during phase II included diarrhoea (15.0%), skin toxicity outside radiotherapy field (12.5%), pain (7.5%), skin toxicity in radiotherapy field, proctitis, fatigue and cardiac ischaemia (each 5%). Conclusions Combining sorafenib and standard chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine is highly active in patients with KRAS-mutated LARC with acceptable toxicity and deserves further investigation. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00869570.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research