Research output: Review article


All the acute, obstructive, infectious and noninfectious upper airway diseases are called croup syndrome. From all causes viral croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), spasmodic croup, bacterial tracheitis and epiglottitis are discussed in this review. Acute laryngotracheobronchitis is a common childhood respiratory infection characterised by inspiratory stridor, hoarse voice and barking cough. Although the disease is generally self-limited, it produces significant morbidity and is a frequent reason for hospitalization during early childhood. It is caused primarily by parainfluenza viruses, but other viruses can cause viral croup occasionally. Treatment is generally supportive, including mist, oxygen, aerosolized epinephrine, steroid, helium-oxygen mixtures. Severe croup requires endotracheal intubation and intensive care unit admission. Spasmodic croup is related to non-inflammatory edema within the submucosa of the subglottic trachea. It responds readily to humidification, cool air and reassurance. Hospitalisation is rarely needed. Bacterial tracheitis is an uncommon but life threatening form of croup. Parenteral antibiotic therapy and intensive care are essential. Most of the patients require intubation. Epiglottitis is characterised by severe airway obstruction and a fulminant clinical course. In children the etiologic agent is almost always Haemophilus influenzae type b. Prophylactic placement of an artificial airway (usually intubation) is mandatory. Each hospital must have clear-cut protocols to cope with children showing airway obstruction, and take into account available skills and facilities.

Translated title of the contributionModern aspects of the croup syndrome - I
Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)92-100
Number of pages9
JournalLege Artis Medicinae
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - márc. 26 1996


  • bacterial tracheitis
  • croup
  • epiglottitis
  • intubation
  • laryngotracheobronchitis
  • racemic epinephrine
  • spasmodic croup
  • upper airway obstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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