New mixed cationic liposomes based on L-α-phosphatidylcholine and dihexadecylmethylhydroxyethylammonium bromide (DHDHAB) were designed to overcome the BBB crossing by using the intranasal route. Synthesis and self-assembly of DHDHAB were performed. A low critical association concentration (0.01 mM), good solubilization properties toward hydrophobic dye Orange OT and antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=7.8 μg mL–1) and Bacillus cereus (MIC=7.8 μg mL–1), low hemolytic activities against human red blood cells (less than 10%) were achieved. Conditions for preparation of cationic vesicles and mixed liposomes with excellent colloidal stability at room temperature were determined. The intranasal administration of rhodamine B-loaded cationic liposomes was shown to increase bioavailability into the brain in comparison to the intravenous injection. The cholinesterase reactivator, 2-PAM, was used as model drug for the loading in cationic liposomes. 2-PAM-loaded cationic liposomes displayed high encapsulation efficiency (∼ 90%) and hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm. Intranasally administered 2-PAM-loaded cationic liposomes were effective against paraoxon-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the brain. 2-PAM−loaded liposomes reactivated 12 ± 1% of brain acetylcholinesterase. This promising result opens the possibility to use marketed positively charged oximes in medical countermeasures against organophosphorus poisoning for reactivation of central acetylcholinesterase by implementing a non-invasive approach, via the “nose-brain” pathway.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry