In most patients affected by isolated infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate possible maternal risk factors in the origin of IHPS. The study samples included 241 cases with IHPS, 357 matched controls and 38151 population controls without any defect in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Exposures that had been medically recorded in prenatal maternity logbooks during the critical period of IHPS were evaluated separately. The findings of this case-control study suggested that - beyond the well-known robust male excess (85.5%) - maternal hyperthyroidism (OR with 95% CI: 4.17, 1.53-11.38) and oral nalidixic acid treatment (OR with 95% CI: 6.53, 3.03-14.06) associated with a higher risk for IHPS in their children. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cases with IHPS had mothers with a higher proportion of hyperthyroidism and nalidixic acid treatment during pregnancy.
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