In inflamed tissues or during ischemia-reperfusion episodes, activated macrophages produce large amounts of reactive species and are, thus, exposed to the damaging effects of reactive species. Here, our goal was to investigate the mechanism whereby activated macrophages protect themselves from oxidant stress-induced cell death. Hydrogen peroxide-treated mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and THP-1 human monocyte-derived cells were chosen as models. We found a gradual development of resistance: first in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, and subsequently after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Investigating the mechanism of the latter, we found that exposure to intense hydrogen peroxide stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) dependent programmed necrotic cell death, also known as parthanatos, as indicated by the protected status of PARP-1 knockout BMDMs and the protective effect of the PARP inhibitor PJ-34. In hydrogen peroxide-treated macrophages, however, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) proved dispensable for parthanatos; nuclear translocation of AIF was not observed. A key event in LPS-mediated protection against the hydrogen peroxide-induced AIF independent parthanatos was downregulation of PARP1 mRNA and protein. The importance of this event was confirmed by overexpression of PARP1 in THP1 cells using a viral promoter, which lead to stable PARP1 levels even after LPS treatment and unresponsiveness to LPS-induced cytoprotection. In BMDMs, LPS-induced PARP1 suppression lead to prevention of NAD+ depletion. Moreover, LPS also induced expression of antioxidant proteins (superoxide dismutase-2, thioredoxin reductase 1 and peroxiredoxin) and triggered a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. In summary, we provide evidence that in macrophages intense hydrogen peroxide stress causes AIF-independent parthanatos from which LPS provides protection. The mechanism of LPS-mediated cytoprotection involves downregulation of PARP1, spared NAD+ and ATP pools, upregulation of antioxidant proteins, and a metabolic shift from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - febr. 1 2019|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)