Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors

S. Vandevijvere, N. Michels, S. Verstraete, M. Ferrari, C. Leclercq, M. Cuenca-García, E. Grammatikaki, Y. Manios, F. Gottrand, J. V. Santamaría, M. Kersting, M. Gonzalez-Gross, L. Moreno, T. Mouratidou, K. Stevens, A. Meirhaeghe, J. Dallongeville, M. Sjöström, L. Hallstrom, A. KafatosK. Widhalm, D. Molnár, S. De Henauw, I. Huybrechts

Research output: Article

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background/Objectives:Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents. Subjects/Methods:Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.Results:The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n=1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n=1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.Conclusion:Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)765-772
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume67
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - júl. 2013

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Heme
Life Style
Iron
Economics
Bread
Meat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors. / Vandevijvere, S.; Michels, N.; Verstraete, S.; Ferrari, M.; Leclercq, C.; Cuenca-García, M.; Grammatikaki, E.; Manios, Y.; Gottrand, F.; Santamaría, J. V.; Kersting, M.; Gonzalez-Gross, M.; Moreno, L.; Mouratidou, T.; Stevens, K.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Dallongeville, J.; Sjöström, M.; Hallstrom, L.; Kafatos, A.; Widhalm, K.; Molnár, D.; De Henauw, S.; Huybrechts, I.

In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, No. 7, 07.2013, p. 765-772.

Research output: Article

Vandevijvere, S, Michels, N, Verstraete, S, Ferrari, M, Leclercq, C, Cuenca-García, M, Grammatikaki, E, Manios, Y, Gottrand, F, Santamaría, JV, Kersting, M, Gonzalez-Gross, M, Moreno, L, Mouratidou, T, Stevens, K, Meirhaeghe, A, Dallongeville, J, Sjöström, M, Hallstrom, L, Kafatos, A, Widhalm, K, Molnár, D, De Henauw, S & Huybrechts, I 2013, 'Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors', European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 765-772. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.100
Vandevijvere, S. ; Michels, N. ; Verstraete, S. ; Ferrari, M. ; Leclercq, C. ; Cuenca-García, M. ; Grammatikaki, E. ; Manios, Y. ; Gottrand, F. ; Santamaría, J. V. ; Kersting, M. ; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Moreno, L. ; Mouratidou, T. ; Stevens, K. ; Meirhaeghe, A. ; Dallongeville, J. ; Sjöström, M. ; Hallstrom, L. ; Kafatos, A. ; Widhalm, K. ; Molnár, D. ; De Henauw, S. ; Huybrechts, I. / Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors. In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013 ; Vol. 67, No. 7. pp. 765-772.
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T1 - Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors

AU - Vandevijvere, S.

AU - Michels, N.

AU - Verstraete, S.

AU - Ferrari, M.

AU - Leclercq, C.

AU - Cuenca-García, M.

AU - Grammatikaki, E.

AU - Manios, Y.

AU - Gottrand, F.

AU - Santamaría, J. V.

AU - Kersting, M.

AU - Gonzalez-Gross, M.

AU - Moreno, L.

AU - Mouratidou, T.

AU - Stevens, K.

AU - Meirhaeghe, A.

AU - Dallongeville, J.

AU - Sjöström, M.

AU - Hallstrom, L.

AU - Kafatos, A.

AU - Widhalm, K.

AU - Molnár, D.

AU - De Henauw, S.

AU - Huybrechts, I.

PY - 2013/7

Y1 - 2013/7

N2 - Background/Objectives:Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents. Subjects/Methods:Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.Results:The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n=1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n=1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.Conclusion:Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.

AB - Background/Objectives:Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents. Subjects/Methods:Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.Results:The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n=1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n=1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.Conclusion:Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.

KW - adolescents

KW - dietary sources

KW - iron intake

KW - iron status

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