Many attempts on optimization of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] tissue culture induction media have been made, but the culture system remains with some bottlenecks compared to that of other crops. This study aimed at assessing the suitability of various induction media to produce embryogenic callus (yellow and friable) with high induction rates and reduced phenolic exudation. The six culture medium modifications: 3 based on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and one each based on Chu N6, Gamborg B5 and 190-2 media respectively were applied in the culture of mature embryos from 10 sorghum genotypes. Although there was a genotype influence on the attainment of a yellow callus, friability of the callus was determined to be dependent on the culture medium and not the genotype. Half strength MS medium with 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D with 2.8 g/l Gelrite® as the gelling agent modified with 1.0 g/l KH2PO4, 1.0 g/l L-proline, 1.0 g/l L-asparagine and 0.16 mg/l CuSO4·5H2O (type E) was found to be the most effective resulting in about 60% yellow coloured callus induction with 25% friability. Addition of CuSO4·5H2O, KH2PO4, L-proline and L-asparagine significantly reduced the phenolic production. Half strength MS medium was observed to contribute to quality callus production when compared to full strength MS media modified with the compounds. The half strength MS medium was also observed to suppress phenolic production. Medium 190-2 produced the highest regeneration frequency (40%) among the 3-regeneration media tested. The results provide information on a suitable sorghum callus induction medium necessary for embryogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science