Over the past decades diabetes mellitus is becoming a global pandemia affecting more than 371 million people worldwide. Parallel with the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes, there is a growing number of type 2 diabetes cases among children and adolescents that poses new challenges to pediatricians. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of end stage renal disease, developing in approximately 30% of diabetic patients. However, overt nephropathy is rare in childhood; screening and ongoing assessment for the earliest manifestation of renal injury is extremely important in this young population, as well. Although in the past decades intensive research activity focused on understanding of the pathomechanism of diabetic nephropathy and invention of new therapeutic approaches, prevention and definitive care are still urgently needed. The clinical section of the article summarizes the present state of epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapies of childhood diabetic nephropathy. Then, the authors discuss the state of basic research and show a few promising targets for drug development.
- animal study
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