Both Bi- and Ce-based CeBi mixed oxides were prepared by a modified sol-gel process from their precursor salts. The mixed as well as the parent oxides were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Raman, XPS, UV–DRS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, ICP–OES method, scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as BET surface area, CO2- and NH3-temperature-programmed desorption measurements. After characterizing the morphology, the acid-base properties, the oxidation states of the cationic components and the porosity of these structures, their catalytic activities were probed in the Koevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde and diethyl malonate and the toluene oxidation to benzaldehyde reactions. Based on the catalytic activities of the oxides in the individual reactions, a catalyst mixture from the Bi- and Ce-based mixed oxides was used successfully in the toluene to benzaldehyde oxidation and benzaldehyde to benzylidene malonate Knoevenagel condensation domino reaction under environmentally benign conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry