Background: The role of gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has been widely examined in malignant conditions due to its possible role in disease progression, but very little information is available on its theoretical function on endometriosis formation. Material/Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2016, we collected peritoneal fluid and plasma samples from 45 consecutive female patients, of which 15 were without endometriosis, 15 had minimal to mild endometriosis, and 15 had moderate to severe endometriosis. The statistical power was 0.98. We evaluated SNCG levels in the peritoneal fluid and plasma of patients diagnosed with endometriosis, and we compared them with the levels obtained from disease-free control subjects by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: SNCG levels were statistically significantly (1.2-fold) higher in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis compared to controls (p=0.04). We did not find a significant difference between SNCG levels in the plasma of our endometriosis patients and the control group (p=0.086). However, despite previous data showing very limited expression of SNCG in healthy tissues, we found SNCG in the peritoneal fluid of all of the patients in our healthy control group. Conclusions: Levels of SNCG were statistically significantly higher in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis compared to disease-free controls, which may indicate its possible role the formation and progression of the disease. Moreover, its biological function should be further investigated due to the conflicting results concerning its expression in healthy tissues.
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