G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization in the Brain

Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Pere Garriga, Francisco Ciruela, Manuel Narvaez, Alexander O. Tarakanov, Miklós Palkovits, Luigi F. Agnati, Kjell Fuxe

Research output: Chapter

85 Citations (Scopus)


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in cellular processes and signaling and have been shown to form heteromers with diverge biochemical and/or pharmacological activities that are different from those of the corresponding monomers or homomers. However, despite extensive experimental results supporting the formation of GPCR heteromers in heterologous systems, the existence of such receptor heterocomplexes in the brain remains largely unknown, mostly because of the lack of appropriate methodology. Herein, we describe the in situ proximity ligation assay procedure underlining its high selectivity and sensitivity to image GPCR heteromers with confocal microscopy in brain sections. We describe here how the assay is performed and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this method compared with other available techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationG Protein Coupled ReceptorsTrafficking and Oligomerization
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9780123918628
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization in the Brain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Borroto-Escuela, D. O., Romero-Fernandez, W., Garriga, P., Ciruela, F., Narvaez, M., Tarakanov, A. O., Palkovits, M., Agnati, L. F., & Fuxe, K. (2013). G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization in the Brain. In G Protein Coupled ReceptorsTrafficking and Oligomerization (pp. 281-294). (Methods in Enzymology; Vol. 521). Academic Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-391862-8.00015-6