Frost tolerance of ten Bulgarian winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Milena, Pobeda, Sadovo-1, Enola, Kristal, Laska, Svilena, Russalka, No301 and Lozen) and five foreign cultivars (Mironovskaya 808, Bezostaya-1, Rannaya-12, Skorospelka-35 and Chinese Spring) was studied in two experimental seasons following natural cold acclimation and in one experiment carried out in controlled acclimation conditions. Considerable intercultivar variability in plant survival was observed after freezing at -21 °C following sufficient cold acclimation, or at -18 °C following insufficient or controlled acclimation. In seven cultivars, the effects of chromosome 5A on frost tolerance were investigated in their F2 hybrids with chromosome 5A monosomic lines of cultivars with high, intermediate and low frost tolerance. The effects of chromosome 5A depended on the stress severity and the genetic background of the hybrids and varied even in cultivars of similar frost tolerance and vernalization requirements. Effects of other chromosomes besides 5A on frost tolerance were assumed. The analysis of six microsatellite loci located in the interval from centromere to Vrn-1 on of chromosomes 5AL, 5BL and 5DL showed that the major loci determining frost tolerance in Bulgarian winter wheats were Fr-A2 on chromosome 5AL, and, to a lesser extent, Fr-B1 on chromosome 5BL. A strong association of the 176 bp allele at locus wmc327 tightly linked to Fr-A2 with the elevated frost tolerance of cvs. Milena, Pobeda, Sadovo-1, Mironovskaya-808 and Bezostaya-1 was revealed. Relatively weaker association between frost tolerance and the presence of the 172 bp allele at locus Xgwm639 tightly linked to Fr-B1 was also observed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science