We report regeneration of fertile, green plants from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Aura) protoplasts isolated from an embryogenic suspension initiated from somatic early-embryogenic callus. The present approach combines the optimization of protoplast culture conditions with screening for responsive genotypes. In addition to the dominant effect of the culture media, the increase in fresh mass and the embryogenic potential of somatic callus cultures varied considerably between the various genotypes tested. Establishment of suspension cultures with the required characters for protoplast isolation was improved by reduction of the ratio between cells and medium and by less frequent (monthly) transfer into fresh medium. A new washing solution was introduced to avoid the aggregation of protoplasts. However, the influence of the culture medium on cell division was variable in the different genotypes. We could identify cultures from cultivar Aura that showed approximately a 9% cell division frequency and morphogenic response. The protoplast-derived microcolonies formed both early and late-embryogenic callus on regeneration medium and green fertile plants were obtained through somatic embryogenesis. The reproducibility of plant regeneration from protoplast culture based on the cultivar Aura was demonstrated by several independent experiments. The maintenance of regeneration potential in Aura suspension cultures required establishment of new cultures within a 9-month period.
ASJC Scopus subject areas