Exploring New Parameter Spaces for the Oxidative Homocoupling of Aniline Derivatives

Sustainable Synthesis of Azobenzenes in a Flow System

Ádám Georgiádes, Sándor B. Ötvös, F. Fülöp

Research output: Article

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aromatic azo compounds have countless applications, not merely in the chemical industry, but also in medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and the field of renewable resources. However, in the synthetic batch routine, the synthesis of azobenzenes often constitutes a significant challenge, mainly because of the ease of overreaction leading to nonoptimal selectivity, and also because of reactivity issues necessitating long reaction times and special reaction conditions. We therefore exploited the benefits of continuous-flow processing for the copper-mediated oxidative homocoupling of arylamines to facilitate the time-, cost-, and atom-effective synthesis of azobenzenes. The novel process window of increased temperature and pressure ranges in combination with the application of overheated solvents afforded a remarkable chemical intensification. Precise control of the residence time restricted the possibility of undesired reaction pathways, such as overreaction to azoxy products, but at the same time ensured sufficient reactivity to furnish valuable aromatic azo compounds, even in the cases of deactivated halogen-substituted anilines and multisubstituted derivatives. As compared with earlier batchwise syntheses, the designed process displays significant advances in terms of sustainability and productivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3388-3397
Number of pages10
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Volume3
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - okt. 26 2015

Fingerprint

Azobenzene
Aniline
Azo Compounds
Derivatives
Aniline Compounds
chemical industry
renewable resource
halogen
biotechnology
residence time
Halogens
sustainability
Biotechnology
Chemical industry
copper
productivity
Sustainable development
Copper
Productivity
cost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "Aromatic azo compounds have countless applications, not merely in the chemical industry, but also in medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and the field of renewable resources. However, in the synthetic batch routine, the synthesis of azobenzenes often constitutes a significant challenge, mainly because of the ease of overreaction leading to nonoptimal selectivity, and also because of reactivity issues necessitating long reaction times and special reaction conditions. We therefore exploited the benefits of continuous-flow processing for the copper-mediated oxidative homocoupling of arylamines to facilitate the time-, cost-, and atom-effective synthesis of azobenzenes. The novel process window of increased temperature and pressure ranges in combination with the application of overheated solvents afforded a remarkable chemical intensification. Precise control of the residence time restricted the possibility of undesired reaction pathways, such as overreaction to azoxy products, but at the same time ensured sufficient reactivity to furnish valuable aromatic azo compounds, even in the cases of deactivated halogen-substituted anilines and multisubstituted derivatives. As compared with earlier batchwise syntheses, the designed process displays significant advances in terms of sustainability and productivity.",
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AU - Fülöp, F.

PY - 2015/10/26

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N2 - Aromatic azo compounds have countless applications, not merely in the chemical industry, but also in medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and the field of renewable resources. However, in the synthetic batch routine, the synthesis of azobenzenes often constitutes a significant challenge, mainly because of the ease of overreaction leading to nonoptimal selectivity, and also because of reactivity issues necessitating long reaction times and special reaction conditions. We therefore exploited the benefits of continuous-flow processing for the copper-mediated oxidative homocoupling of arylamines to facilitate the time-, cost-, and atom-effective synthesis of azobenzenes. The novel process window of increased temperature and pressure ranges in combination with the application of overheated solvents afforded a remarkable chemical intensification. Precise control of the residence time restricted the possibility of undesired reaction pathways, such as overreaction to azoxy products, but at the same time ensured sufficient reactivity to furnish valuable aromatic azo compounds, even in the cases of deactivated halogen-substituted anilines and multisubstituted derivatives. As compared with earlier batchwise syntheses, the designed process displays significant advances in terms of sustainability and productivity.

AB - Aromatic azo compounds have countless applications, not merely in the chemical industry, but also in medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and the field of renewable resources. However, in the synthetic batch routine, the synthesis of azobenzenes often constitutes a significant challenge, mainly because of the ease of overreaction leading to nonoptimal selectivity, and also because of reactivity issues necessitating long reaction times and special reaction conditions. We therefore exploited the benefits of continuous-flow processing for the copper-mediated oxidative homocoupling of arylamines to facilitate the time-, cost-, and atom-effective synthesis of azobenzenes. The novel process window of increased temperature and pressure ranges in combination with the application of overheated solvents afforded a remarkable chemical intensification. Precise control of the residence time restricted the possibility of undesired reaction pathways, such as overreaction to azoxy products, but at the same time ensured sufficient reactivity to furnish valuable aromatic azo compounds, even in the cases of deactivated halogen-substituted anilines and multisubstituted derivatives. As compared with earlier batchwise syntheses, the designed process displays significant advances in terms of sustainability and productivity.

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KW - Oxidative homocoupling

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