The antiproliferative effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the presence of low dose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on high cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-expressing HCA-7 and low COX-2-expressing HT-29 colon carcinoma cell lines was investigated. Pharmacogenetic parameters were studied to characterize the 5-FU sensitivity of the two cell lines. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms were determined by PCR analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by SRB assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis by FACS analysis. Cyclooxygenase expression was detected by Western blot and also by fluorescence microscopy. Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels were investigated with ELISA kit. The HT-29 cell line was found to be homozygous for TS 2R and 1494ins6 and T homozygous for MTHFR 677 polymorphisms predicting high 5-FU sensitivity (IC 50 : 10 μM). TS 3R homozygosity, TS 1496del6 and MTHFR 677CT heterozygosity may explain the modest 5-FU sensitivity (IC 50 : 1.1 mM) of the HCA-7 cell line. Indomethacin and NS-398 (10 μM and 1.77 μM, respectively) reduced the PGE 2 level in HCA-7 cells (>90%). Low concentrations of NSAIDs without antiproliferative potency increased the S-phase arrest and enhanced the cytotoxic action of 5-FU only in HCA-7 cells after 48-hours treatment. The presented data suggested that the enhancement of 5-FU cytotoxicity by indomethacin or NS-398 applied in low dose is related to the potency of NSAIDs to modulate the cell-cycle distribution and the apoptosis; however, it seems that this effect might be dependent on cell phenotype, namely on the COX-2 expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cancer Research