Purpose: Congenital bladder outflow obstruction caused by posterior urethral valves is a common cause of end stage renal failure in boys. We hypothesized that fetal bladder outflow obstruction perturbs detrusor contractility and innervation and bladder storage volume-pressure relationships. Materials and Methods: Severe bladder outflow obstruction was induced in male fetal sheep by placing a urethral ring and urachal ligation midway through gestation at 75 days. Fetuses were examined 30 days after surgery, when urinary tract dilatation, enlarged bladders and histologically abnormal kidneys were documented. Isolated strips of bladder detrusor from sham operated and obstructed fetuses were subjected to electrical field stimulation, carbachol, KCl and α-β methylene-adenosine triphosphate. Whole bladder storage characteristics were determined by filling cystometry and bladder innervation was investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Tension-frequency contractility studies showed that obstructed fetal bladder strips were significantly hypocontractile versus sham operated controls in response to electrical field stimulation and the specific agonists carbachol, KCl and α-β methylene-adenosine triphosphate. Hypocontractility was greater with nerve mediated stimulation than with carbachol, suggesting relative denervation. Reduced innervation was confirmed by S100 and protein gene product 9.5 immunohistochemistry and by measuring a significant reduction in protein gene product 9.5 protein expression using Western blot. Filling cystometry showed that obstructed fetal bladders appeared more compliant (ΔV/ΔP, where ΔV is the change in volume and ΔP is the change in pressure) with larger capacity, more flaccidity and yet retained stress relaxation. Conclusions: In response to severe experimental fetal bladder outflow obstruction the bladder becomes large and hypocontractile, and has aberrant innervation.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Urology|
|Issue number||4 I|
|Publication status||Published - okt. 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas