Objectives: According to the recent classification of diabetes mellitus the Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) belongs to the group of type 1 autoimmune diabetes, as a slowly progressive form. Our aim was to determine (i) the prevalence of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 genotypes, and (ii) to determine the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α promoter polymorphism at position -308 (the G→A substitution, designated the TNF2 allele) in patients with type 1 diabetes and with LADA compared with the healthy population. Methods: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II genotypes and the TNF α promoter polymorphism were determined by PCR method. We examined 69 type 1 diabetic and 42 LADA patients. As control samples of 336 cadaver kidney donors and 138 volunteers were used. Results: Both type 1 diabetes mellitus and LADA were positively associated with the DRB1*04-DQB1*0302 (DR4/DQ8) haplotype (P=0.00001, and P=0.0005, respectively), and negatively associated with the DRB1*11-DQB1*0301 (DR11/DQ7) haplotype (P=0.00006, and P=0.007, respectively) compared with control population. There were differences between the two disease entities in the frequency of the DRB1*03-DQB1*02 (DR3/DQ2) haplotype (P=0.00008 vs. P=0.177) compared with control group. The presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly lower in LADA than type I diabetes (P=0.022) or control group (P=0.017). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there are marked differences in the genetic background of type 1 diabetes and LADA. The low presence of TNF2 allele (known to be associated with high amount of TNF α production) in LADA could be one of the factors responsible for the relatively slow progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy