Objectives: The long-term use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) may lead to biofilm formation on the surface. The aim of this study was to perform the culture- and PCR-based detection of bacteria/fungi from the biofilm of the removed IUDs with different time periods in place. Methods: For a 2-year period, 100 IUD users were involved in the study. In the majority of the cases, IUDs were removed because of the patients' complaints. Beside the aerobic and anaerobic culture, species-specific PCR was carried out to detect Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the "signalling" bacteria of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in the biofilm removed by vortexing. Results: Sixty-eight percent of IUDs were used for more than 5 years, 32% were removed after 10 years in place. In 28% of the IUDs ≥ 3 different anaerobic species typically found in BV with or without other aerobic bacteria were found by culture method. Streptococcus agalactiae (14%) and Actinomyces spp. (18%) were also isolated frequently. The PCR detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus spp. and Ureaplasma urealyticum were 62%, 32%, 23% and 16%, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the IUDs were PCR positive at least for one "signalling" bacterium of BV. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR only in one IUD together with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, while the presence of N. gonorrhoeae could not be confirmed from the biofilm of these removed devices. Conclusion: Sexually transmitted infections (STI)-related bacteria - except for one patient - were not detected on the IUDs removed due to different reasons including clinical symptoms of infection. Presence of any BV "signaling" anaerobic bacteria were detected in a much higher number in the biofilm of the removed IUDs by PCR-based method compared to use culture method (76 versus 28 samples). Different aerobic and anaerobic bacteria colonized an equal number of IUDs, independent of the time-period in place, which may be relevant, if the IUD is removed due to planned pregnancy or due to a fear from upper genital tract infection caused by anaerobic bacteria including Actinomyces spp.
|Journal||Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials|
|Publication status||Published - nov. 22 2018|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases