Background and Purpose-A right-to-left shunt can be identified by contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (c-TCD) at rest and/or after a Valsalva maneuver (VM) or by arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. We assessed the influence of controlled strain pressures and durations during VM on the right-to-left passage of microbubbles, on which depends the shunt classification by c-TCD, and correlated it with the right-to-left shunt evaluation by ABG measurements in stroke patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods-We evaluated 40 stroke patients with transesophageal echocardiography-documented PFO. The microbubbles were recorded with TCD at rest and after 4 different VM conditions with controlled duration and target strain pressures (duration in seconds and pressure in cm H2O, respectively): V5-20, V 10-20, V5-40, and V 10-40. The ABG analysis was performed after pure oxygen breathing in 34 patients, and the shunt was calculated as percentage of cardiac output. Results-Among all VM conditions, V5-40 and V 10-40 yielded the greatest median number of microbubbles (84 and 95, respectively; P<0.01). A significantly larger number of microbubbles were detected in V5-40 than in V5-20 (P<0.001) and in V10-40 than in V10-20 (P<0.01). ABG was not sensitive enough to detect a shunt in 31 patients. Conclusions-The increase of VM expiratory pressure magnifies the number of microbubbles irrespective of the strain duration. Because the right-to-left shunt classification in PFO is based on the number of microbubbles, a controlled VM pressure is advised for a reproducible shunt assessment. The ABG measurement is not sensitive enough for shunt assessment in stroke patients with PFO.
|Number of pages||5|
|Publication status||Published - ápr. 1 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing