It is increasingly recognized that fundamental differences exist between high-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes regarding interactions with the host. This study aims to join the recently emerging efforts to uncover these differences at the complete genome level and to study how they may influence the disease caused. Sixteen samples of thirteen patients with various HPV6-mediated benign mucosal disorders (nine recurrent respiratory papillomatoses with 2–8 recurrences, one condyloma acuminatum and three premalignant lesions of the genital mucosa) were sampled to determine the complete virus genomes. We collected the 197 HPV6 complete genomes deposited in the GenBank for cluster analysis to determine (sub)lineages. Genome polymorphisms were determined against the reference sequences of the (sub)lineages. Genome polymorphisms of the long control region (LCR) were tested for putative transcription factor binding sites; their functional analysis was performed by transient transfection of cloned whole LCRs into HEp-2 cells using a luciferase reporter system. Genomes from the same patients were always identical. Three, nine and one patients carried HPV6 lineage A, sublineage B1 and B2 variants, respectively. The three lineage A sequences were highly similar to each other, but distinct from the reference genome. A unique non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in the E5a open reading frame (ORF). Sublineage B1 genomes were more diverse, exhibited unique non-synonymous SNPs in the LCR and the E2/E4, L1, L2 ORFs. LCR activity of lineage A and sublineage B1 differed significantly; activity of one sublineage B1 LCR exhibiting two unique SNPs was significantly higher than that of other B1 LCR variants, close to the mean of LCR activities of lineage A variants. Different HPV6 lineages showed marked differences in variability patterns of the different genome regions. This may be involved in the differences in their distribution in different diseases or patient populations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Molecular Biology
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases