OBJECTIVE • To review the factors related to urinary tract infection (UTI), the most prevalent complication in patients who perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). METHODS • We conducted a literature search then a group discussion to gather relevant information on aspects of UTI to guide future research and to help provide clearer recommendations for the prevention of UTI in patients performing CIC. RESULTS • UTI is a major complication of CIC, the incidence of which varies widely in the literature owing to differences in methodology and definitions. • Phenotyping the risk factors for UTI helps to assess prognosis by considering what can happen if treatment is not initiated. The role of biofilms in CIC deserves more attention. • Diagnosis is made using the urine sample obtained by catheterization. Because of neurological or other deficiencies in patients performing CIC, symptoms are less reliable. Thorough evaluation for the source of signs and symptoms should be made before attributing them to UTI. • There have been many different proposals for the prevention of UTI in patients performing CIC, but most need more research. The role of the type of catheter is unclear but further exploration of special catheter types might be worthwhile. • Treatment in those who perform CIC for a long time is best reserved for symptomatic infections. CONCLUSIONS • Several mechanisms are relevant in UTI related to CIC. • As UTI is prevalent, more research into its prevention is needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas