Organic compounds can interact with clay minerals by i) adsorption at the external surfaces, ii) adsorption at the external and internal surfaces, iii) by exchange of exchangeable ions at the external surfaces, iv) by exchange of exchangeable ions at the external and internal surfaces, and v) by grafting reactions with silanol and aluminol groups leading to covalent bonds. Kaolin minerals intercalate only are a limited number of compounds whereas the reactions of 2:1 clay minerals, in particular smectites and vermiculites, are very manifold. Special attention is given to the interaction with neutral organic molecules such as alcohols, fatty acids, amines, amino acids, aromatic compounds, macrocyclic compounds, and nuclein bases. The interaction with complexes and dyes also provides the basis of advanced applications of clay minerals. Binding of long chain alkylammonium ions is a fundamental reaction for hydrophobising clay mineral particles as needed in many applications. The interaction of clay minerals with polymers including proteins is not only an actual field of research but also of practical importance. Organo-clay minerals are used as effective adsorbents. As these materials also adsorb solvent molecules together with the adsorptive, the adsorption process must be considered as adsorption from binary solution which, therefore, is also described in this chapter.