The human ABCG2 is an important plasma membrane multidrug transporter, involved in uric acid secretion, modulation of absorption of drugs, and in drug resistance of cancer cells. Variants of the ABCG2 transporter, affecting cellular processing and trafficking, have been shown to cause gout and increased drug toxicity. In this paper, we overview the key cellular pathways involved in the processing and trafficking of large membrane proteins, focusing on ABC transporters. We discuss the information available for disease-causing polymorphic variants and selected mutations of ABCG2, causing increased degradation and impaired travelling of the transporter to the plasma membrane. In addition, we provide a detailed in silico analysis of an as yet unrecognized loop region of the ABCG2 protein, in which a recently discovered mutation may actually promote ABCG2 membrane expression. We suggest that post-translational modifications in this unstructured loop at the cytoplasmic surface of the protein may have special influence on ABCG2 processing and trafficking.