Molecular genetic methods have become an organic part of everyday clinical practice. In the past, molecular diagnostic tests were carried out for genetic diagnosis of a particular monogenic disease. In these situations the tests itself were used for identification of one particular genetic alteration (e.g., point mutation or deletion) of the gene of interest. Later, parallel with the development of the technology, the focus has shifted by allowing investigating at once targeted gene panels and even the whole exome/genome behind a suspected genetic disorder. Historically for these purposes, array-based methods (oligonucleotide arrays) and then next-generation sequencing-based methods have been used. High-throughput methods have been fundamentally transforming the everyday, routine genetic diagnostics, but older molecular techniques still have a role in clinical genetics. Here, we summarize the most important molecular genetic methods and shed light to the advantages and disadvantages of their application in routine diagnostics. We mainly focus on methods used for detection of germline alterations.
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