Background: Congenital thrombophilia is responsible for thromboembolic complications despite prolonged low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis following hip and knee endoprosthesis surgery. Methods: A series of 86 patients with hip or knee endoprosthesis surgery were assessed 1 year after operation. Antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S were determined, and the activated protein C sensitivity ratio was measured. We screened for the presence of lupus anticoagulant, factor V Leiden mutation, and polymorphism of prothrombin G20210A. The lower limb venous circulation was monitored by color Doppler ultrasonography. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed using ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy. Results: In all, 33 patients had thromboembolic complications, 18 with thrombophilia (7 with combined form). Of the 53 patients without complications 12 had thrombophilia (2 with combined form). The differences were statistically significant. The risk score, the prevalence of FV Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, and lupus anticoagulant were also significantly higher in the symptomatic group. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) developed preoperatively in 15 patients; DVT and PE in 4 patients; thrombophilia was diagnosed in 53% and 75% of these cases. In all, 17 patients had postoperative thromboembolic complications: DVT developed in nine and PE in one patient (all with thrombophilia); DVT + PE developed in seven patients (all but one had thrombophilia). Conclusions: Significant differences were found in the incidence (P ≤ 0.01) of thrombophilia and the risk score (P ≤ 0.02) between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. We recommend preoperative thrombophilia screening for patients with a history or familial prevalence of thromboembolism and/or with a high risk score (≥15). In cases of thrombophilia, the form and duration of anticoagulant treatment must be decided individually.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine